011 Call for Proposals: Disaster risk and displacement in Ethiopia
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2020 Call for Proposals (Grants out)
UNDRR is the United Nations’ focal point for the coordination of disaster risk reduction, working with countries and a broad range of partners and stakeholders to support the implementation, monitoring and review of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 in coherence with the 2030 Agenda and other instruments, for the multihazard management of disaster risk in development and the substantial reduction of disaster risk and losses.
UNDRR issues grants, in line with UN Financial Regulations and Rules, to apolitical and not profit-making organisations to facilitate, implement, or carry out activities related to UNDRR’s and the partner’s mandates and work programmes.
To this end, UNDRR invites not profit-making organisations to submit grant proposals that focus on the project described below.
Disaster risk and displacement in Ethiopia – strengthening the vulnerability component in the assessments of disaster displacement risk.
A substantial increase in disaster displacement in the recent past has been explained through the fact that an increase in exposure has not been compensated by a corresponding reduction in vulnerability (UNDRR, 2019).
Displacement in the Greater Horn of Africa is a complex phenomenon. Displacement triggered by events linked to natural hazards imply a multitude of social, economic, political and environmental drivers which shape the vulnerability and exposure of diverse communities (UNDRR, 2017).
Since the attribution of displacement to a single cause is likely to be misleading it is of importance that continuous efforts and resources are dedicated for the improvement of approaches and tools to understand displacement risk.
Among the factors that heighten vulnerability count weak governance capacity, low economic and social development, chronic insecurity (IDMC, 2019). Vulnerability, be it physical, social, economic or associated with environmental factors is addressed from multiple perspectives in DRR research and practice. Attention has been paid to individual factors such as age, sex, ethnic identity, but also mental and emotional health, individual access to resources and capacity. Household, community and social structural factors have been analyzed. Qualitative and quantitative approaches for the assessment of disaster risk and disaster displacement have captured and integrated various aspects of vulnerability.
Power, manifested through structural conditions, institutions and conflict, likewise shape disaster displacement risk. Lessons from studies and from the management of conflict-induced displacement can provide valuable input for the understanding of disaster displacement (ODI, 2019).
Vulnerability in its different dimensions and across the multiple variables requires the use of multiple methodologies (Cardona 2012). The implications span conceptual domains, selection and validation of data, prioritization of methods, or the application of assessments. Improvements in the assessment of vulnerability are desired with respect to clear communication of study limitations and uncertainty (de Sherbinin 2019).
The increasing trend in bringing together diverse disciplinary perspective create a potential for cross-fertilization across quantitative and qualitative approaches to assess both disaster risk and disaster displacement risk. When complemented with methods striving to capture the context, the complexity and the dynamics of social and environmental systems, quantitative approaches for assessing vulnerability and disaster risk can increase their relevance to different stakeholders. With greater methodological cross-fertilization, assessments can better reflect the decision-making context and thus contribute to more effective risk management by the different stakeholders.
The aim of this project is therefore to contribute conceptually and methodologically to the assessment of displacement risk, bringing into focus ways to better integrate aspects of vulnerability. A geographical focus is put on the Greater Horn of Africa and Ethiopia.
In 2017, a quantitative study on disaster displacement published by UNDRR in collaboration with IDMC looked at sudden onset disasters and conflict, quantifying displacements caused by conflict and by disasters (UNDRR 2017). It represented the first baseline for displacement risk associated with sudden-onset disasters in the countries of the Greater Horn of Africa with the aim of reducing future displacement risk. Among the conclusions of the study is the acknowledgment that in some countries in the Horn of Africa vulnerability is the overriding factor in displacement risk rather than the exposure of the population.
In 2019, UNDRR published a guideline entitled Disaster displacement: How to reduce risk, address impacts and strengthen resilience, which emphasized that data and analysis of the different dimensions of vulnerability and the dynamic nature of vulnerability should be a priority in assessments of various aspects associated with displacement.
In 2018 and 2019, UNDRR and the CIMA Research Foundation developed probabilistic risk profiles for 16 Sub Saharan African countries, using a quantitative probabilistic approach and a harmonized methodology to allow for a future use of the risk profiles at supranational level. The risk profiles provide a comprehensive view of hazard, risk and uncertainties for floods and droughts based on a select socio-economic pathway and projected for a future climate over the next 50 years. They include an estimation of the probable impacts of disaster events, including monetary losses for selected sectors identified by the Sendai targets (www.riskprofilesundrr.org). Stakeholder consultations and workshops with national DRR stakeholders indicated high demand to further advance risk assessments to better reflect the multitude of information that can be integrated through the vulnerability component. There is a strong need to integrate robust and locally specific, data on exposure, vulnerability, resilience, capacity and on coping strategies into risk assessments so that DRR investments and response processes are effective and target the most vulnerable people and places in timely and appropriate ways.
With the financial support of the Government of Italy, this project builds on the above activities and aims to contribute to Priority 1 of the Sendai Framework in the domain of understanding risk, and specifically in the area of disaster displacement.
- Provide a comprehensive overview of existing approaches, tool and data used to assess the risk of disaster displacement in the Horn of Africa;
- develop methodological recommendations to integrate multidimensional vulnerability and resilience data into the assessment of disaster risk and disaster displacement risk and into DRR planning in the Horn of Africa and in Ethiopia;
- Through extensive consultations with stakeholders working on DRR and displacement, develop a resource to contribute to DRR, climate change adaptation and displacement/migration planning in Ethiopia and at the IGAD level
- DRR stakeholders engaged in DRR and migration work in Ethiopia and in the IGAD region benefit from global good practice on assessing the vulnerability and resilience of populations and ecosystems for assessing disaster-related displacement risk
- The vulnerability component in risk assessment and assessment of disaster displacement risk is strengthened and promoted through critical discussion among key national and regional stakeholders;
- Policy and planning in the domain of DRR and displacement/ forced migration benefit from improved risk information.
This project output is a comprehensive study of the methodological approaches, tools and data used for the assessment of disaster risk with specific focus on disaster displacement. The findings will serve to develop detailed recommendations for further advancement of assessment of disaster displacement and its risk in Ethiopia and at the IGAD level. Attention will be paid to integration of qualitative and quantitative approaches and data to strengthen the representation of the multiple dimensions of vulnerability and resilience that characterise populations at risk of becoming displaced or being affected by displacement, and of the multiple factors that influence displacement decision-making by individuals, households and communities at risk of different hazards.
E. Suggested activities:
Activity 1: Inception
This activity will aim to ensure maximal engagement of UNDRR’s partners and both DRR and migration stakeholders in Ethiopia and IGAD. This will be done through a consultative process to confirm the scope, methodology and timeline for the work.
- The methodology of the research project and the form of the agreed outputs reflects the needs and interests of relevant stakeholders;
- Key partners are informed from the beginning of the project and their contributions have been solicited and reflected in the project.
- Virtual inception meeting with UNDRR and key partners and stakeholders regionally and in Ethiopia working on risk knowledge, risk assessment and displacement;
- virtual inception meeting with IGAD counterparts and the Government of Ethiopia to establish needs and specify the objectives of the study;
- bilateral consultations with UNDRR’s key partners and stakeholders working on disaster risk assessment and disaster displacement both in Ethiopia and at IGAD level;
- inception report outlining the objectives, scope, methodology and timelines for the work.
Activity 2: Review of good practices
A review of good practices will be undertaken to analyze existing conceptual and methodological approaches to assess disaster risk and specifically disaster displacement risk. Specific focus will be on vulnerability, adaptive capacity and resilience of individuals, households, and communities who are at risk of hazards.
The review will gather evidence from conceptual and methodological approaches that have been piloted globally, but with special attention being paid to specific approaches that have been used in Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa. Particular attention in the analysis will be paid to the opportunities and challenges associated with a complementary use of qualitative and quantitative data and methods.
Furthermore, the influence of institutional contexts and structural conditions which influence the creation of risk as well as that in which risk assessments are undertaken will be critically considered in the analysis.
The assessment will examine the implications of methodological choices for the practical application of assessments results by its intended and unintended users.
Given the importance of conflict in being a driver of displacement and the complex relationship between disaster and conflict-induced displacement, the review should allow for lessons to be drawn across the two perspectives.
Where relevant, linkages to systems thinking and systemic risk assessment will be captured in the review.
- A resource is made available to DRR stakeholders on best practice approaches to assess risk of disaster displacement with a focus on vulnerability, adaptive capacity and resilience;
- Good practices are identified for ways to strengthen the vulnerability component in quantitative risk assessment and to produce a comprehensive, multidimensional analysis of risk relevant to disaster-related displacement.
- Targeted review of concepts, approaches, methodologies and data used to assess the risk of disaster-related displacement in Ethiopia, the IGAD region and where relevant, globally. Particular attention to be paid to the vulnerability component of risk assessments and the ways in which qualitative and quantitative data and methods have been linked.
- Report summarizing the consultations with experts and key stakeholders undertaken to collect input into, further complement and validate the review. Stakeholders engaged in the consultations will include government bodies, donor agencies, academic institutions, think tanks and non-governmental organisation in Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa, working in the domains of DRR, forced migration, climate risk assessment, sustainable development;
- A working paper detailing good practices, developing recommendations and providing a critical discussion of the findings of the review (linked to the working paper in activity 3).
Activity 3: Development of recommendations and guidelines to integrate robust analysis of vulnerability into the assessment of disaster-related displacement risks in Ethiopia and at IGAD level.
Elaborate methodological and practical recommendations to advance the collection of data and assessment of disaster displacement risk in Ethiopia and for the IGAD region with the aim to strengthen the vulnerability component in risk assessment in the context of assessing disaster displacement risk.
Special attention will be paid to furthering the vulnerability component in quantitative assessments, including in probabilistic disaster risk assessment. Opportunities and requirements for assessments based on mixed methods and multi-disciplinary approaches will be considered when developing the recommendations.
Existing datasets should be examined considering their contribution to the proposed methodology.
Extensive stakeholder consultations at the national level in Ethiopia and at IGAD level will be used to inform the recommendations and to identify opportunities to further existing methodologies.
Information about the production and the use of existing risk assessments will be important in developing practical recommendations, which are sensitive to institutional dynamics, scientific, technical and operational capacity. Analysis of the use of existing assessments will be valuable to increase understanding of the science-policy interface with implications for the prioritization of DRR investments (risk informed investments).
Aspects of political economy and political ecology should be considered in the elaboration of the methodological recommendations to increase the application of risk assessment for DRR planning and operations in Ethiopia.
Recommendations should have relevance for Ethiopia, where UNDRR’s principal counterpart is NDRMC and for IGAD countries through targeted consultations with IGAD ICPAC and the IGAD DRR Unit.
- Increased capacity to integrate multidimensional vulnerability and resilience data into DRR planning in Ethiopia, with specific focus to increase knowledge on the risk of disaster displacement
- Context specific recommendations are available to stakeholders in Ethiopia and in the Horn of Africa with the aim to improve the methodology of risk assessment and focused on integrating robust analysis of vulnerability, resilience, adaptive capacity and the drivers of displacement into the assessment of disaster-related displacement risks.
- Analytical input is made available feeding into preparations for the Africa Regional Platform 2021.
- Stakeholder consultations in Ethiopia and in IGAD to understand the current approaches, processes, practices, data and technologies that are currently being used to assess vulnerability, resilience and adaptive capacity in relation to disaster risk and disaster-related displacement and to understand the needs and opportunities to advance assessment of disaster displacement risk;
- Review of existing sources and repositories of data on socio-economic and bio-physical vulnerability, resilience and adaptive capacity as well as the institutional context of this data ecosystem.
- proposed methodological approach and recommendations elaborated in a final technical report
- 2 virtual workshops to discuss and validate the findings and the recommendations of the proposed approach;
- a working paper / guideline to disseminate the findings and recommendations of the proposed approach to assess disaster-related displacement risks in Ethiopia by integrating robust analysis of vulnerability, resilience, adaptive capacity and the drivers of displacement into existing assessment methodologies (to be combined with the working paper in activity
G. Elements specific to the project that the grantee should know: (i.e. – workshops and trainings not considered in the proposal).
Applicants should be non-for-profit organizations.
The project is implemented concurrently with other UNDRR’s activities in Ethiopia focused on the collection of disaster loss data, on DRR budgeting and development of an EWS for forest fire. There is no requirement that these activities and the proposed project feed into each other, but it would be desirable that the successful applicant takes into consideration the planning for the activities and ensures possible synergies across the efforts.
Applicants are required to indicate a plan for implementation, taking into consideration challenges created by the COVID-19 pandemic.
H. Budget & administrative-related aspects
The duration of the proposed project cannot exceed 8 months. The maximum amount requested from UNDRR for the implementation of this project cannot exceed 80,000USD. The project proposal must not exceed 10 pages (attachments such as scanned copies of entity’s registration, CVs of staff etc. do not count).
For this purpose, please fill in duly all the sections of the application form, include the required documents (scanned copy of NGO/IGO’s registration certificate, CVs of staff etc.) and budget excel sheets, and send the complete application package (application form, budget excel sheets, entity registration certificate, CVs of staff, etc.) to the following email address: email@example.com
Reference: 011 Call for Proposals Disaster risk and displacement in Ethiopia
Deadline for applications: 4 November 2020 midnight New York, USA EST (Eastern Standard Time). Incomplete and/or late applications will not be considered.
Projects’ activities can include, amongst others, the following:
- seminars, workshops, trainings;
- capacity building activities;
- institutional strengthening activities and
The following types of activity will not be covered:
- capital expenditure, e.g. land, buildings, equipment and vehicles;
- individual scholarships for studies or training courses;
- supporting political parties; and
Due to the number of applications, only short-listed applicants will be notified.
Please note that the grant payment schedule will be determined with the selected grantee when finalizing the agreement. UNDRR standard practice is: not to exceed 40% of the requested amount upon signature of the grant agreement; remaining payments made based on a schedule of payments linked to production of project milestones and the final payment, 20%, will be paid after the end of the project, once final documents have been received, verified and approved by UNDRR.
Refund of grants: UNDRR may request organizations to refund, either in part or in whole any amounts paid in respect of a grant when:
- the project was not implemented in full or in part;
- the grant was spent for ineligible expenditures other than those mentioned in the budget proposal submitted to, and approved by UNDRR;
- no narrative, financial or audit report was submitted within the deadline established by the grant agreement;
- a narrative report and/or a financial report submitted was determined to be unsatisfactory;
- a negative evaluation of the project by UNDRR;
- any other valid reason provided by the UNDRR.
 UNDRR (2019). Words into action, Disaster Displacement: How to reduce risk, address impacts and strengthen resilience. United National Office for Disaster Risk Reduction.
 UNISDR and IDMC (2017). Displacement in the Greater Horn of Africa: A Disaster Risk Reduction Perspective.
Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) and Internal Displacement Monitoring
 IDMC (2019). Global Report on Internal Displacement 2019. Internal Displacement Monitoring
 Cardona, O.D., M.K. van Aalst, J. Birkmann, M. Fordham, G. McGregor, R. Perez, R.S. Pulwarty, E.L.F. Schipper, and B.T. Sinh (2012). Determinants of risk: exposure and vulnerability. In: Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, USA.
 de Sherbinin A, Bukvic A, Rohat G, et al. (2019). Climate vulnerability mapping: A systematic review and future prospects. WIREs Clim Change.